pet trust

Estate Planning For Single People


Single people without children often avoid estate planning and the challenges associated with it, because of feeling overwhelmed or unsure.  This is unfortunate because its even more critical for single people to plan ahead and name their fiduciaries and beneficiaries as there is no clear cut answer for their loved ones should something happen.

The following questions should be addressed:

To whom should I leave my assets?

Do I need to consider creating a trust to manage my assets now or for my chosen beneficiaries in the future?

Who should be my personal representatives and/or trustees?

Who should be my agents for my medical and financial powers of attorney?

If you are a single person without young children, you can leave your assets to whomever you choose, including but not limited to your partners, relatives, friends or charitable organizations. In Colorado, you can also create Pet Trusts and name trustees to care for your animals. If you do not have an estate plan in place, the state will dictate who will inherit your assets.  A recent case in point, the author of the Girl With the Dragon Tattoo series, Stieg Larrsen did not have an estate plan and as a result, his estranged father and brother, whom he had not spoken to for over 20 years before his death inherited his entire estate and all royalties thereof while his long-time love and assistant, whom he had lived with for 20 years was cut off, receiving nothing.

Selection of the right personal representatives and trustees is also essential to successful estate and trust administration. Who do you trust to administer your estate, especially if your relatives live far away or are unfamiliar with your affairs?  In addition, health care and financial powers of attorney are very important documents to have in place since you may need these agents to make crucial medical decisions on your behalf as well as control your financial matters if you are ever unable to do so on your own because of disability.

Estate planning for a single person often demands more attention to detail than estate planning for married persons or single persons with children or grandchildren - because there is no obvious answer.  A Will is usually sufficient for unmarried persons with smaller estates, but a Living Trust may be a better option for persons with larger estates (click here to read about Living Trusts). Your estate planning documents should be reviewed regularly, particularly when there have been changes in the law or in your personal situation. As a single person, it is very important that you understand how your assets are currently held and how they will pass after your death.

Can I provide for my pets in my estate plan?

Clients often ask me if they can provide for their pets in their estate plans. The answer is yes – Colorado does allow for Pet Trusts – and many people use these as a means to ensure that their beloved companions (dogs, cats, horses, exotic birds etc.) are provided for if they are either disabled or upon their death.

Pet Trusts are extremely useful in a number of situations. For most household pets, Pet Trusts are used as just-in-case planning, very similar to naming a guardian in your Will for minor children. For pets with a very long lifespan, such as many types of tropical birds, Pet Trusts may be viewed as a necessity so that pet owners can provide certainty of care for pets that will almost certainly outlive their human companions. Pet Trusts are also useful to provide continuity of care for pets in the event of the disability of a human companion.

In general, trusts need certain types of beneficiaries before they will be recognized and upheld by the law. Typically, these types of beneficiaries have been either ascertainable individuals or charities. Therefore, historically, it was difficult to provide for the continuing care of pets after death. In the past, estate planning to care for pets involved leaving assets to a trusted friend or family member with the understanding that they would use the assets to care for the pet. Although this method has certainly worked, there have undoubtedly been times when the pets have not been taken care of in the way that their human counterparts would have expected or the pets have not been cared for at all, with the trusted friend or family member using the assets for self-benefit instead of the benefit of the pet. Finally, the most obvious choice of an individual to care for a pets physical needs may not be the best choice of an individual to manage the assets placed in the trust for the benefit of the pet.

Several states now have legislation that specifically authorizes the establishment of trusts to benefit pets and other animals. Colorado law, reflected in Colorado Revised Statues Section 15-11-901, allows a pet owner to put aside assets and ensure that the assets are used for the benefit of the pet.

My best friend, Luke.

My best friend, Luke.


Many Colorado estate planners draft their Pet Trusts to allow pet owners to leave assets for the benefit of their pets as well as to allow the pet owners to designate both a Pet Guardian to manage the care of the pet and a Trustee to manage the assets in the trust and make appropriate distributions to the guardian. Because of this separation of duties, the creator of the Pet Trust can ensure that the best person is selected to care for the pet and the best person is selected to manage the assets funding the trust for the pet.


Under Colorado law, Pet Trusts operate in the following manner:

  • Assets can be placed in trust for the benefit of a pet.
  • The trust can be written so that if the pet is pregnant at the time the trust goes into effect, the trust will remain in force to provide care for the offspring of the pet.
  • The trust will remain in effect until there is no living animal covered by it, unless an earlier termination is provided for in the trust itself.
  • The trustee is not allowed to use any portion of the principal or income of the Pet Trust for the trustee’s benefit or in any way that is not for the benefit of the animals covered by the trust.
  • The creator of the trust has complete freedom to designate where any assets left in the trust upon its termination should go.
  • The appropriate use of the trust funds can be enforced by a Trust Protector designated in the trust instrument, by any person having custody of an animal for which care is provided by the trust, by any beneficiary designated by the trust creator to receive assets at the termination of the trust, or, if none of the above, by an individual appointed by a court if someone makes an application to the court to review the use of the funds.
  • If there is ever a situation in which a Pet Trust comes into effect but there is no trustee able or willing to serve, a court has the authority to designate a trustee and make other orders and determinations so that the intent of the creator of the pet trust will be carried out.


  • Pet Trusts can be set up at death, at disability, or immediately upon signing a trust instrument.
  • Pet Trusts are typically set up in a Last Will so that upon the death of the creator of the Will, the Pet Trust is established and funded.
  • However, Pet Trusts can also be established in a Revocable Living Trust so that upon the disability of the creator of the Revocable Living Trust, a Pet Trust will be established to provide for continuity of care of the pet or pets.
  • Additionally, at any other time, any individual can set up a stand-alone Pet Trust to establish a Trustee and fund a trust for the benefit of a pet.

Copyright Tanya R. Shimer LLC.  All Rights Reserved.

Estate Planning Basics: What should be covered in any estate plan

Tibetan couple in Dharamasala, India
Tibetan couple in Dharamasala, India

Foundational Planning – the Basics

The foundation of all estate plans contains:

Last Will or a Revocable Living Trust,

a Financial Power of Attorney,

a Medical Power of Attorney, and

a Living Will.

The combination of these documents allows you to designate how your assets and health will be managed if you ever become disabled.  Further, the Last Will or Revocable Living Trust provides for the distribution of your assets upon your death – to the individuals or organizations you choose and in the manner you decide.

The foundational planning of the Inca in Peru.
The foundational planning of the Inca in Peru.

A good estate plan with careful planning should allow you to:

During life:

--Manage and enjoy your assets as completely as possible

--Transfer assets to the next generation while minimizing transfer tax upon the transfer or at death.

--Meet your charitable or religious contribution goals

If you become disabled:

--Have at least one primary and one alternate financial decision maker legally recognized and ready to assist you.

--Have at least one primary and one alternate medical decision maker legally recognized and ready to assist you

Upon death:

--Designate who will receive your assets at your death

--Specify how those individuals will receive your assets

--Designate a guardian and trustee for your minor children

--Minimize any transfer taxes

--Ideally and with careful planning, replace any value lost to taxes

Why do I need a will?

Wills are important.  A will ensures that whatever personal belongings and assets you  have will go to family or beneficiaries you designate. Without a will, the court makes these decisions.

If you have children, a will ensures that your wishes regarding your children will be clear.  You will be able to designate a guardian for your children's daily care.   By completing a will, you will also be able to name a trustee who will be responsible for taking care of your financial resources for your children until they are adults.

Depending on the size of your estate, careful estate planning in a will can create significant tax benefits.  If you have a will and other foundational estate planning documents taken care of you will also avoid subjecting your family and loved ones to confusion and anxiety at a difficult because your wishes will have already been made clear to them.

What does a will allow me to do?

In your will, you can name:

Your beneficiaries. You may name beneficiaries (family members, friends, spouse, domestic partner or charitable organizations, for example) to receive your assets according to the instructions in your will. You may list specific gifts, such as jewelry or a certain sum of money, to certain beneficiaries, and you should direct what should be done with all remaining assets (any assets that your will does not dispose of by specific gift).

A guardian and trustee for your minor children. You may nominate a person to be responsible for your child’s personal care if you and your spouse die before the child turns 18. You may also name a trustee—who may or may not be the same person—to be responsible for managing any assets given to the child, until he or she is 18 years old or older, depending on your wishes.

A personal representative. You may nominate a person or institution to collect and manage your assets, pay any debts, expenses and taxes that might be due, and then distribute your assets to your beneficiaries according to the instructions in your will. Your personal representative serves a very important role and has significant responsibilities. It can be a time-consuming job. You should choose your personal representative carefully.

Asset protection/tax planning. A properly designed estate plan should:

-- protect your assets, your person, and your business from a possible future disability;

--protect your assets from liability during and after your life;

--distribute your assets tax efficiently at your death; and

--ensure that assets left to young beneficiaries are left inside of a structure such as a trust that will provide management and protection of these assets for them.

Special needs planning.  Planning for a family member with special needs is often a difficult endeavor for families and is especially important for families with significant assets.  Many planning techniques are available to ensure that a loved one with special needs is provided for without jeopardizing their ability to receive the public benefits they need and to protect them from fraud.

© 2012 Tanya Shimer All Rights Reserved.