Clients often ask me if they can provide for their pets in their estate plans. The answer is yes – Colorado does allow for Pet Trusts – and many people use these as a means to ensure that their beloved companions (dogs, cats, horses, exotic birds etc.) are provided for if they are either disabled or upon their death.
Pet Trusts are extremely useful in a number of situations. For most household pets, Pet Trusts are used as just-in-case planning, very similar to naming a guardian in your Will for minor children. For pets with a very long lifespan, such as many types of tropical birds, Pet Trusts may be viewed as a necessity so that pet owners can provide certainty of care for pets that will almost certainly outlive their human companions. Pet Trusts are also useful to provide continuity of care for pets in the event of the disability of a human companion.
In general, trusts need certain types of beneficiaries before they will be recognized and upheld by the law. Typically, these types of beneficiaries have been either ascertainable individuals or charities. Therefore, historically, it was difficult to provide for the continuing care of pets after death. In the past, estate planning to care for pets involved leaving assets to a trusted friend or family member with the understanding that they would use the assets to care for the pet. Although this method has certainly worked, there have undoubtedly been times when the pets have not been taken care of in the way that their human counterparts would have expected or the pets have not been cared for at all, with the trusted friend or family member using the assets for self-benefit instead of the benefit of the pet. Finally, the most obvious choice of an individual to care for a pets physical needs may not be the best choice of an individual to manage the assets placed in the trust for the benefit of the pet.
Several states now have legislation that specifically authorizes the establishment of trusts to benefit pets and other animals. Colorado law, reflected in Colorado Revised Statues Section 15-11-901, allows a pet owner to put aside assets and ensure that the assets are used for the benefit of the pet.
PET TRUSTS IN COLORADO
Many Colorado estate planners draft their Pet Trusts to allow pet owners to leave assets for the benefit of their pets as well as to allow the pet owners to designate both a Pet Guardian to manage the care of the pet and a Trustee to manage the assets in the trust and make appropriate distributions to the guardian. Because of this separation of duties, the creator of the Pet Trust can ensure that the best person is selected to care for the pet and the best person is selected to manage the assets funding the trust for the pet.
SPECIFICS OF THE COLORADO PET TRUST
Under Colorado law, Pet Trusts operate in the following manner:
- Assets can be placed in trust for the benefit of a pet.
- The trust can be written so that if the pet is pregnant at the time the trust goes into effect, the trust will remain in force to provide care for the offspring of the pet.
- The trust will remain in effect until there is no living animal covered by it, unless an earlier termination is provided for in the trust itself.
- The trustee is not allowed to use any portion of the principal or income of the Pet Trust for the trustee’s benefit or in any way that is not for the benefit of the animals covered by the trust.
- The creator of the trust has complete freedom to designate where any assets left in the trust upon its termination should go.
- The appropriate use of the trust funds can be enforced by a Trust Protector designated in the trust instrument, by any person having custody of an animal for which care is provided by the trust, by any beneficiary designated by the trust creator to receive assets at the termination of the trust, or, if none of the above, by an individual appointed by a court if someone makes an application to the court to review the use of the funds.
- If there is ever a situation in which a Pet Trust comes into effect but there is no trustee able or willing to serve, a court has the authority to designate a trustee and make other orders and determinations so that the intent of the creator of the pet trust will be carried out.
WHEN TO SET UP A PET TRUST
- Pet Trusts can be set up at death, at disability, or immediately upon signing a trust instrument.
- Pet Trusts are typically set up in a Last Will so that upon the death of the creator of the Will, the Pet Trust is established and funded.
- However, Pet Trusts can also be established in a Revocable Living Trust so that upon the disability of the creator of the Revocable Living Trust, a Pet Trust will be established to provide for continuity of care of the pet or pets.
- Additionally, at any other time, any individual can set up a stand-alone Pet Trust to establish a Trustee and fund a trust for the benefit of a pet.
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